Introduction: Definition of a Computer Network, Components of a computer network, Use of Computer networks, Classification of networks, based on transmission technology, Based on the scale, Local area networks, Metropolitan area networks, Wide area networks, Wireless networks.

Network Software & Network Standardization: Introduction, Networks Software, Protocol hierarchy, Design issues for the layers, Merits and De-merits of Layered Architecture, Service Primitives

Reference models - OSI Reference Model, advantages and disadvantages of OSI Model TCP/IP Reference Model, Comparison of the OSI & the TCP/IP Reference Models, Network standardization

Data Communications: Theoretical basis for communication; Fourier analysis, Band limited signals, Maximum data rate of a channel: Transmission impairments; Attenuation distortion, Delay distortion, Dispersion, Noise: Data transmission modes; Serial & Parallel, Simplex, Half duplex & full duplex, Synchronous & Asynchronous transmission

Physical Layer: Introduction, Network topologies; Linear Bus Topology, Ring Topology, Star Topology, Hierarchical or Tree Topology, Topology Comparison, Considerations when choosing a Topology, Switching, Circuit switching, Message switching, Packet switching, Implementation of packet switching, Relationship between Packet Size and Transmission time, Comparison of switching techniques, Multiplexing; FDM – Frequency division multiplexing, WDM – Wavelength division multiplexing, TDM – Time division multiplexing.

Transmission Medium: Introduction, Transmission medium, Guided & Unguided Transmission medium, Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber, Comparison of fiber optics and copper wire: Wireless transmission; Electromagnetic spectrum, Radio transmission, Microwave transmission:

Data Link Layer: Introduction; Goal of DLL, Design issues of DLL, Services provided to the Network layer, Framing, Error control, Flow control, Link Management, ARQ strategies: Error Detection and correction, Parity bits, Importance of flaming distance for error correction, Single bit error correction or (n, m) flaming code, Error Detection or Cyclic Redundant Code (CRC), Data Link layer protocols, Transmission control protocols, HDLC,

Medium Access Control Sub Layer: Introduction, The channel allocation problem, Static channels allocation, Dynamic channels allocation in LAN’s and MAN’s, Multiple access protocols, Pure ALOHA or Unslotted ALOHA Protocol, Slotted ALOHA or Impure ALOHA Protocol, CSMA Protocol, CSMA/CD Protocol, Binary exponential Algorithm, Comparison of channel access protocols: IEEE standards; Ethernets, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.3 frame format:

Network Layer: Introduction, Design issues of Network layer, Nature of the service provided, Internal organization, Routing, Congestion control, Internetworking, Principles of Routing; Types of routing algorithms, Classes of routing algorithms, Properties of routing algorithms, Optimality principle, Routing algorithms, Shortest path algorithm, Flooding, Distance vector routing, Hierarchical routing, Link state routing, Comparison of routing algorithms, Congestion, Factors of congestion, Comparison of flow control and congestion control, General principles of congestion control, Closed loop solution: IP protocol (IPV4)

Transport Layer: Introduction, Services of Transport layer, Service primitives: Connection establishment, Connection Release, Transport Protocols, TCP protocol, UDP protocol,

Networking Devices: Introduction, Goal of networking devices: Repeaters, Uses of Repeaters: Hubs; Classification of Hubs, Stackable Hubs, USB Hub, Switches, Switching Methods, Comparison of switching methods, Working with Hubs and Switches, Cables Connecting Hubs and Switches, Managed Hubs and Switches, Port Density, Bridges, Bridge Implementation Considerations, Types of Bridges: Routers; Dedicated Hardware versus Server-Based Routers, Advantages and Disadvantages of dedicated hardware routers, Drawbacks of Routers, Gateways; Advantages of gateways, Gateways Functionality, Other Devices, Modems, Proxy Server, Wireless router, Brouter, Wireless Access Point (WAPs).